EP Mobile References


These are the sources used for the EP Mobile app. Some (but not all) of the sources are also linked to in the app itself. Unfortunately some sources are behind paywalls. In these cases I have usually been able to obtain copies via other means, usually from colleagues via email or social media. My thanks to them for their support!



  • McKenna WJ, Thiene G, Nava A, et al. Diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. Br Heart J. 1994;71:215-218.
  • Marcus FI, McKenna WJ, Sherrill D, et al. Diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia. Proposed modification of the task force criteria. Circulation. 2010;121:1533-1541. Available from: http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/121/13/1533.long

Brugada Syndrome

CMS ICD Criteria


EP Normal Values

  • Josephson ME. Clinical cardiac electrophysiology: techniques and interpretations. 2nd ed. Philadelphia/London: Lea & Febiger; 1993.

Long QT Syndrome

Pacing Tricks

QTc Calculation

  • Benatar A, Decraene T. Comparison of formulae for heart rate correction of QT interval in exercise ECGs from healthy children. Heart. 2001;86:199-202. Available from: http://heart.bmj.com/content/86/2/199.full.pdf
  • Rautaharju, P. M., Zhang, Z.-M., Prineas, R., & Heiss, G. (2004). Assessment of prolonged QT and JT intervals in ventricular conduction defects. American Journal of Cardiology, 93(8), 1017–1021. http://www.ajconline.org/article/S0002-9149(04)00025-6/abstract
  • Rautaharju, P. M., Surawicz, B., & Gettes, L. S. (2009). AHA/ACCF/HRS Recommendations for the Standardization and Interpretation of the Electrocardiogram Part IV: The ST Segment, T and U Waves, and the QT Interval: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology; the American College of Cardiology Foundation; and the Heart Rhythm Society: Endorsed by the International Society for Computerized Electrocardiology. Circulation, 119(10), e241–e250. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/119/10/e241.full.pdf
  • Bogossian, H., Frommeyer, G., Ninios, I., Hasan, F., Nguyen, Q. S., Karosiene, Z., … Zarse, M. (2014). New formula for evaluation of the QT interval in patients with left bundle branch block. Heart Rhythm, 11(12), 2273–2277. http://www.heartrhythmjournal.com/article/S1547-5271(14)00915-1/abstract

Risk Scores

Short QT Syndrome

Ventricular Hypertrophy

  • Hsieh BP, Pham MX, Froelicher VF. Prognostic value of electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy. Am Heart J. 2005;150:161-167. Original behind paywall. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16084164
  • Hancock EW, Deal BJ, Mirvis DM, et al. AHA/ACCF/HRS recommendations for the standardization and interpretation of the electrocardiogram. Part V: Electrocardiogram changes associated with cardiac chamber hypertrophy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;53:992. http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1139534

Ventricular Tachycardia

  • Tada H, Ito S, Naito S, et al. Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia arising from the mitral annulus. A distinct subgroup of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:877-886. Available from: http://content.onlinejacc.org/pdfaccess.ashx?ResourceID=2908482
  • Joshi S, Wilber DJ. Ablation of idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia: current perspectives. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2005;16:S52-S58, Suppl 1. Original behind paywall. Abstract available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-8167.2005.50163.x/abstract
  • Bala R, Marchlinski FE. Electrocardiographic recognition and ablation of outflow tract ventricular tachycardia. Heart Rhythm. 2007;4:366-370.

Wide Complex Tachycardia

  • Brugada P, Brugada J, Mont L, Smeets J, Andries EW. A new approach to the differential diagnosis of a regular tachycardia with a wide QRS complex. Circulation. 1991;83:1649-1659. Available from: http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/83/5/1649.long
  • Wellens HJJ, Bar FWHM, Lie KI. The value of the electrocardiogram in the differential diagnosis of a tachycardia with a widened QRS complex. Am J Med. 1978;64:27-33. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/623134
  • Pava LF, Perafan P, Badiel M, et al. R-wave peak time in DII: a new criterion for differentiating between wide complex QRS tachycardias. Heart Rhythm. 2010;7:922-926. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20215043
  • Vereckei A, Duray G, Szénási G, Altemose GT, Miller JM. New algorithm using only lead aVR for differential diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia. Heart Rhythm 2007;5:89-98. Original behind paywall. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18180024

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